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This is an example of a survey article. Notice that the abstract does not mention a control group or variables. It simply discusses a telephone survey that was conducted to test the study hypothesis. Click PDF Full Text in the upper left to view the full text of the article.
This is an example of a psychological case study. The abstract does not specifically state that this is a case study, but in the Methodology section of the citation, you can see that it is listed as a Clinical Case Study. Click PDF Full Text in the upper left to view the full text of the article, and as you skim through the article you will be able to see that this is a case study of one particular veteran with PTSD.
This article provides an example of a formal experimental research study. The abstract states that this study was a "randomized controlled trial" which are clues to the fact that this is a formal experiment. You can see the full text of the article by clicking PDF Full Text in the upper left of the citation. Looking through the full text of the article, you will notice sections called Methods, Participants, Measures, Procedure, Results and Discussion. These section headings are more indications that this was conducted as as a formal experimental research study.