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ENGL 101 - English Composition I - Purtell: MLA Citations

MLA Citations Web Sites

Citation Examples

Why Cite?

When you include someone else’s ideas in a paper, you must document or cite the sources of the ideas. In other words, if you have learned anything new and include it in your paper, you must give credit to whoever provided the new information

Book with One Author

Hoffman, Alice. The Marriage of Opposites. Simon & Schuster, 2015.

Book with Two Authors

Bagchi, Debasis C. and Nair D. Sreejayan. Nutritional and Therapeutic Interventions for Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome. Academic P, 2012.

Book with More than Two Authors

Lewis, Sharon M., et al. Medical-Surgical Nursing: Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems. Elsevier, 2014.

Book with an Editor

Howell, Elizabeth F., and Sheldon Itzkowitz, editors. The Dissociative Mind in Psychoanalysis: Understanding and Working with Trauma. Routledge, 2016.

Work in an  Anthology

Blumber, Robyn. “The Free Speech Rights of Abortion Protesters Should Not Be Restricted.” Censorship: Opposing Viewpoints, edited by Tamara L. Roleff, Greenhaven, 2012, pp. 54-58.


Kater, Michael H. Hitler Youth. Harvard UP, 2004. eBook Collection, login? %26AN%3d282437%26site%3dehost-live.

Database Periodical (Newspaper or Magazine) with permalink

Palilt, Amitendu. “The TPP and its Implications for Beijing.” China Daily U.S. Edition, 24 Feb. 2016, p. A1, Newsbank, resources/doc/ nb/news/ 15B3729A28B3EFE8?p=AWNB.

Database Journal Article with DOI

Kocol, Cleo Fellers. "The Feminist Caucus of the American Humanist Association: A Brief Herstory." The Humanist, vol. 72, no. 5, Sept.-Oct. 2012, p.18. Academic Search Complete, doi: 10.1186/s13229-016-0112-x.

Database Reference Book Article

Tomlinson, Alan. “Olympic Ceremony.” A Dictionary of Sports Studies, Oxford UP, 2016. Oxford Reference, /view/10.1093/ acref/ 9780199213818.001.0001/acref-9780199213818-e-819.

Website with a corporate (government) author

United States, Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Drought and Your Health.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 25 July 2016,

Website without an Author

“Performance-enhancing Drugs: Know the Risks.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2016, fitness/in-depth /performance-enhancing-drugs/ art-20046134.

Image from a Website

“Williams.” LancasterOnline, 6 June 2016, builder-of proposed.html.

Video from a Website (YouTube Video)

Headlee, Celeste. “10 Ways to Have a Better Conversation.” TED Talks, 8 Mar. 2016. YouTube,

Newspaper/Magazine Article from its own Website

Suderman, Alan. “Environmentalists, Utilities Eye Richmond Coal Ash Trial.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 13 July 2016, Environmentalists-utilities-eye-Richmond-coal-ash-trial-Dominion-Clean-WaterAct/stories/201607130090.

Personal Interview

Jones, Martin. Telephone Interview. 02 Aug. 2016.

Helpful Handouts

These handouts will give you an idea of the type of information you need to gather about a source in order to create the citation withing the Works Cited page.

MLA Videos (Purdue University)

MLA Handbook (8th Edition)

MLA In-Text Citation

MLA In-text citation flowchart - refer to outline after image 

Outline Summary - MLA In-Text Citations Flowchart
  1. Q: Are you paraphrasing or quoting from a source?
    1. If No, You do not need to provide a citation in parentheses.
    2. If Yes, Q: Does your source have page numbers?
      1. If No, You will not include any numbers in your in-text citation. Move to Q: “Are you able to Identify an author?”
      2. If Yes, Include the page number of the information you used in your in-text citation. Move to Q: “Are you able to Identify an author?”
  2. Q: Are you able to identify an author? 
    1. If No, Use a shortened version of the title, in quotations marks
    2. If Yes, Q: Are the authors identified by first and last names
      1. If No, Use the group, organization or department name
      2. If Yes, Q: “How many authors are there?”
        1. One: Use the last name only
        2. Two: Use both last names with the word and in between
        3. Three or more: Use the first author’s last name followed by et al.
  3. Q: Did you put any author names or page numbers in the sentence where you used the information?
    1. If Yes, You do not need to duplicate what you already wrote within parentheses.
    2. If No, Place the information in parentheses at the end of the sentence before the period.
Examples of two authors with page information: 
Smith and Jones noted 5% increase in the use of infographics in the last two years (45).
There was a 5% increase in the use of infographics in the last two years (Smith and Jones 45).