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ENGL 203 - American Literature I - Woodring

MLA Handbook (9th Edition)

MLA Style Center Resources (includes fillable template)

This fillable template will guide you through identifying the types of information you need to gather about a source in order to create the citation within the Works Cited page. When you are asked for a "Container" you are being asked for the larger source that your article, webpage, or chapter is contained within. For example, a chapter is contained within a book: 

MLA Video Tutorials

Citation Examples

The following includes examples for a variety of common types of resources a student uses in their work. 

Books

Garcia, Gabriela. Of Women and Salt. Flatiron Books, 2021.
In-Text Citations

According to Garcia, "Text of quotation" (121). 

"Text of quotation" (Garcia 121).

White, Ismail K., and Chryl N. Laird. Steadfast Democrats: How Social Forces Shape Black Political Behavior. Princeton UP, 2020.

In-Text Citations

According to White and Laird, "Text of quotation" (117).

"Text of quotation" (White and Laird 117).

Hurley-Hanson, Amy E., et al.  Autism in the Workplace: Creating Positive Employment and Career Outcomes for Generation A. Palgrave Macmillan, 2020.

In-Text Citations

According to Hurley-Hanson et al., "Text of quotation" (59).

"Text of quotation" (Hurley-Hanson, et al. 59).

Rendon, Laura I., and Vijay Kanagala, editors. The Latino Student’s Guide to STEM Careers. Greenwood, 2017.
In-Text Citations:

According to Rendon and Kanagala, "Text of quotation" (117).

"Text of quotation" (Rendon and Kanagala 117).

Blue Cloud, Peter. “Rattle.” When the Light of the World Was Subdued, Our Songs Came Through: A Norton Anthology of Native Nations Poetry, edited by Joy Harjo, W. W. Norton, 2020, p. 33.

In-Text Citations:

According to Blue Cloud, "Text of quotation" (39).

"Text of quotation" (Blue Cloud 33).

Johnson, Earl. Finding Comfort During Hard Times : A Guide to Healing After Disaster, Violence, and Other Community Trauma. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2020. EBSCOhost, https://ezproxy.hacc.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=2398724&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

In-Text Citations:

According to Johnson, "Text of quotation" (202).

"Text of quotation" (Johnson 202).

McBride, James. Deacon King Kong. E-book ed., Riverhead Books, 2020. Overdrive.

In-Text Citations:

McBride states, "Text of quotation" (89).

"Text of quotation" (McBride 89).

Suzuki, Yoko. "Enka Music." Music around the World: A Global Encyclopedia, edited by Andrew R. Martin and Matthew Mihalka, vol. 1, ABC-CLIO, 2020, pp. 252-254. Gale eBooks, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX7327400103/GVRL?u=harr60939&sid=bookmark-GVRL&xid=0d089d86.

In-Text Citations:

According to Suzuki, "Text of quotation" (253).

"Text of quotation" (Suzuki 253).

Database Articles

Medeiros, Michelle. “Introduction: Why Transatlantic Dialogues?” The Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association, vol. 52, no. 1, spring 2019, pp. 5–10. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/45281943. Accessed 30 July 2021.
In-Text Citations
Medeiros states, “Text of quotation” (6). “Text of Quotation” (Medeiros 6).

Yakubu, Okhumode H. "Delivering Environmental Justice through Environmental Impact Assessment in the United States: The Challenge of Public Participation." Challenges, vol. 9, no. 1, 2018. ProQuest, http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.hacc.edu/10.3390/challe9010009.

In-Text Citations
Yakubu states, “Text of quotation.” “Text of Quotation” (Yakubu).

Yu, Qinggang, et al. "Racial Residential Segregation and Economic Disparity Jointly Exacerbate COVID‐19 Fatality in Large American Cities." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1494, no. 1, 2021, pp. 18-30. ProQuest, http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.hacc.edu/scholarly-journals/racial-residential-segregation-economic-disparity/docview/2539985510/se-2?accountid=11302.

In-Text Citations
Yu et al. state, “Text of quotation” (25). “Text of Quotation” (Yu et al. 25).
Warren, John E. "One Year After George Floyd: America and the Police." New Pittsburgh Courier, June 2021. ProQuest, http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.hacc.edu/newspapers/one-year-after-george-floyd-america-police/docview/2542743994/se-2?accountid=11302.
In-Text Citations:
Warren states, “Text of quotation.” “Text of Quotation” (Warren).

"Out of the Shadows: Mental Health." The Economist, vol. 415, no. 8935, Apr 25, 2015, pp. 56-57. ProQuest, http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.hacc.edu/magazines/out-shadows-mental-health/docview/1675910741/se-2?accountid=11302.

In-Text Citations:
“Out of the Shadows” explains “Text of quotation.” “Text of Quotation” (“Out of the Shadows”).

Websites

“Drinking Water.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 28 Oct. 2020, www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/public/water_quality.html.
In-Text Citations
In the article "Drinking Water"... Or: “Text of quote” (“Drinking Water”).

“Are Tanning Pills and Other Tanning Products Safe?” American Cancer Society, 23 July 2019, www.cancer.org/healthy/be-safe-in-sun/tanning-pills-and-products.html.

In-Text Citations
(“Tanning Pills”).

Imbler, Sabrina. “What If You Could Become Invisible to Mosquitos?” The New York Times, 17 Aug. 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/08/17/science/crispr-mosquito-vision.html.

In-Text Citations
(Imbler).
Morin, Brandi. “These Indigenous Children Died Far Away More Than a Century Ago. Here’s How They Finally Got Home.” National Geographic, photographs by Daniella Zalcman, National Geographic Society, 6 Aug. 2021, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/
these-indigenous-children-died-far-away-more-than-a-century-ago-heres-how-they-finally-got-home.
In-Text Citations:
(Morin).

Other Web Content

Angerer, Drew. Photograph of Activist at Temporary Protected Status Rally. "What to Expect When You're Expecting Temporary Protected Status," by Cirien Saadeh, 4 Aug. 2021. Colorlines, https://www.colorlines.com/articles/what-expect-when-youre-expecting-temporary-protected-status.
In-Text Citations
In a photograph taken by Drew Angerer, ... (Angerer).

Bettmann. Daniel Hale Williams. Biography, www.biography.com/news/daniel-hale-williams-first-open-heart-surgery-story.

Within the Text

photo of Daniel Hale Williams

Fig. 1. Daniel Hale Williams.

Ross, Loretta J. "Don't Call People Out, Call Them In." YouTube, uploaded by TED, 4 Aug. 2021, https://youtu.be/xw_720iQDss.

In-Text Citations
According to Loretta Ross, "text of quotation" (3:14). "Text of quotation" (Ross 3:14).
National Park Service. "At National Parks, You Don't Pet Bison." Instagram, 4 Aug. 2021, https://www.instagram.com/p/CSLJo_4D_oe/.
In-Text Citations:
According to the National Park Service, "text of quotation." "Text of quotation" (National Park Service).

"Ending Child Marriage in Jordan: A Bride with a Doll." Equality Now, 21 June 2021, https://www.equalitynow.org/a_bride_with_a_doll.

In-Text Citations:
According to blog post "Ending Child Marriage in Jordan," female children "text of quotation." "Text of quotation" ("Ending Child Marriage in Jordan").

Luse, Brittany and Eric Eddings, hosts. "Trans Lives, Front and Center." The Nod, Gimlet Media, 11 Aug. 2020. https://gimletmedia.com/shows/the-nod/6nhb9dw/trans-lives-front-and-center.

In-Text Citations:
According to Luse and Eddings, "text of quotation" (4:39). "Text of quotation" (Luse and Eddings 4:39).

Interviews

Chang, Joe. Interview. Conducted by Eva Smith, 2 Aug. 2021.
In-Text Citations
According to Chang, "Text of quotation." "Text of quotation" (Chang).

Chang, Joe. Telephone interview with the author. 2 Aug. 2021.

In-Text Citations
According to Chang, "Text of quotation." "Text of quotation" (Chang).
Chang, Joe. Personal communication with the author. 2 Aug. 2021.
In-Text Citations:
According to Chang, "Text of quotation." "Text of quotation" (Chang).

Chang, Joe. Email message to the author. 2 Aug. 2021.

In-Text Citations:
According to Chang, "Text of quotation." "Text of quotation" (Chang).

Chang, Joe. Text message to the author. 2 Aug. 2021.

In-Text Citations:
According to Chang, "Text of quotation." "Text of quotation" (Chang).

MLA In-Text Citation Flowchart

MLA In-text citation flowchart - refer to outline after image 

Outline Summary - MLA In-Text Citations Flowchart
  1. Q: Are you paraphrasing or quoting from a source?
    1. If No, You do not need to provide a citation in parentheses.
    2. If Yes, Q: Does your source have page numbers?
      1. If No, You will not include any numbers in your in-text citation. Move to Q: “Are you able to Identify an author?”
      2. If Yes, Include the page number of the information you used in your in-text citation. Move to Q: “Are you able to Identify an author?”
  2. Q: Are you able to identify an author? 
    1. If No, Use a shortened version of the title, in quotations marks
    2. If Yes, Q: Are the authors identified by first and last names
      1. If No, Use the group, organization or department name
      2. If Yes, Q: “How many authors are there?”
        1. One: Use the last name only
        2. Two: Use both last names with the word and in between
        3. Three or more: Use the first author’s last name followed by et al.
  3. Q: Did you put any author names or page numbers in the sentence where you used the information?
    1. If Yes, You do not need to duplicate what you already wrote within parentheses.
    2. If No, Place the information in parentheses at the end of the sentence before the period.
Examples of two authors with page information: 
Smith and Jones noted 5% increase in the use of infographics in the last two years (45).
There was a 5% increase in the use of infographics in the last two years (Smith and Jones 45).

In-Text Citations

When writing your paper, you need to provide an in-text citation that tells the reader which of your sources the information came from. This citations shows up within the paper as either part of the introductory phrase of the sentence or in parentheses at the end of the sentence. 

"An in-text citation begins with the shortest piece of information that directs your reader to the entry in the Works Cited list. Thus it begins with whatever comes first in the entry"  (usually the author). A second 'location" component will also often be included, if available. Examples of second components are page numbers; line numbers; and time stamps (Modern Language Association 227-228).

In-text citations must be included for both direct quotations and paraphrases. 

Examples

According to Smith, the number of students relying on citation software has increased (234). 

The number of students relying on citation software has increased (Smith 234). 

This in-text citation points the reader to the Works Cited page to find the complete citation. 

 

How to Set up Your Paper

  1. Open Microsoft Word 2016
    1. Click on the Start button (lower left-hand corner).
    2. Select All Apps, and then Word 2016.
    3. A screen asking what type of document you want to use will appear. Choose “blank document”.
  2. SET THE FONT
    1. From the Home tab, in the Font group, change the style to Times New Roman
    2. Change the size to 12, using the drop-down arrows.
  3. SET THE MARGINS
    1. From the Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click Margins.
    2. For a paper in MLAFormat, click Normal. This will create 1” margins on all sides.
  4. DOUBLE SPACING - Change line spacing
    1. Click on the Home tab. In the Paragraph group, click Line Spacing.
    2. Click 2.0, to select double-spacing. NOTE: To change the spacing of a paragraph or portion of the text, highlight the section that needs to be changed, open the paragraph group, and re-select the appropriate spacing.
  5. SETTING UP THE HEADER [Inserting your Last Name and Page Number]
    1. On the first page of the document, double click the header or footer area (on the top of the page).
    2. Under Header & Footer Tools, on the Insert tab click Page Number.
    3. Select, ‘Top of Page’ and “plain number 3” (right-hand side).
    4. When cursor is blinking, type your last name before the page number.
    5. Select the red Close Header box in the upper right.
    6. NOTE: To create a custom header or footer click the Different First Page check box and go to the next step.
  6. ENTER YOUR HEADING
    1. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click Left Align
    2. Type in your heading information:
    • Your Name
    • Instructor’s Name
    • Course Title
    • Due Date (day month year)
  7. CENTER YOUR TITLE
    1. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click Center Align
    2. Type your title. Press the Enter Key
    3. Select Left Align and continue with your document.
  8. WORKS CITED AND HANGING INDENTS
    1. At the end of your paper you must create a list of resources that you cited in your paper. This is called the Works Cited list on its own separate page. This list must be in alphabetical order and include hanging indents.
    2. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click Center
    3. On the first line of the reference page, center the words “Works Cited” (no bold, formatting,
    4. italics, underlining, or quotation marks).
    5. Beginning with the next line, type your citations. If a citation is longer than one line just keep typing and allow it to automatically flow onto the next line.
    6. At the end of your citation use the enter key to go to the next line to start the next citation.
    7. Once you are finished with all your citations highlight all of them.
    8. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the small arrow in the bottom right corner.
    9. In the indentation section click the drop down box labeled “special” and select “hanging” then click okay.
    10. Make sure the citations are still highlighted. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the sort button and click okay. This will alphabetize your entries.
  1. LOG-IN TO YOUR GOOGLE ACCOUNT
    1. In the top right, click the menu button.
    2.  Select Google Drive from the list
    3. On the left-hand side, click New:
    4. Select Google Docs from the list
    5. Click Untitled Document in the top left to rename your document
  2. SET THE FONT: In the ribbon along the top of the page, change the style to Times New Roman and the size to 12, using the drop-down arrows.
  3. SET THE MARGINS
    1. Click File
    2. Select Page Set-Up
    3. Make sure the margins are all set to 1.
  4. DOUBLE SPACING - Change line spacing
    1. Find the line spacing icon in the ribbon.
    2. From the drop down menu, select double.
  5. SETTING UP A HEADER
    1. Select Insert along the top of the page.
    2. From the drop-down menu, select Page Number.
    3. Click on the first option with page numbers in the top right-hand corner.
    4. Your page number should appear on the top right-hand side of the page. If it is not on the right-hand side, you will need to change it. Click on Format, select Align, and change it to Right.
    5. With your cursor in front of the page number, click the enter button. This will drop your header down to the next line.
    6. In front of the page number, type your last name(s) and then click the space bar.
  6. HEADING
    1. On the first page of your paper, include a heading in the top left-hand corner.
    2. Your heading will include the following:
      Your Name(s)
      Instructor’s Name
      Course Title
      Due Date (day month year)
  7. WORKS CITED AND HANGING INDENTS
    1. At the end of your paper you must create a list of resources that you cited in your paper.
      This is called the Works Cited list on its own separate page. This list must be in
      alphabetical order and include hanging indents.
    2. To start a new page, look for Insert along the top of the page. From the drop-down menu,
      select Page Break from that list. This will put your cursor on a new page and you will be
      ready to begin your Works Cited page.
      1. Click on Format, select Align, and change the alignment to Center. At the top of the page,
        center the words: Works Cited (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation
        marks).
      2. Beginning with the next line, type your citations. If a citation is longer than one line just
        keep typing and allow it to automatically flow onto the next line.
      3. At the end of your citation use the enter key to go to the next line to start the next citation.
      4. Once you are finished with all citations, highlight all of them.
      5. At the top of your document, there is a format option. Open the Format menu.
      6. In the format menu, select the option for align & indent. From this option, open the menu for indentation options.
      7. In the indentation options menu, make sure that left and right indents are set to 0. Then under special options, select Hanging to automatically format your highlighted citations with a hanging indent.
  8. SAVING: Google automatically saves your information. You will see the last time the information was saved along the top of the document.
  9. DOWNLOADING: You can download your document as a Word file. Click File, Download As, and then select your preferred Document type.
  10. PRINTING: Use the print icon within Google to print your document. If you try to use another print option in your web browser, it probably will not print correctly. Most likely, clicking the print option in Google will open a prompt asking if you want to open your document as an Adobe PDF. Select open and then you can print your document from within Adobe.