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ENGL 101- English Composition I- Doherty

Class research guide

Getting Started

Current Library Services

What is a LibGuide?

LibGuide explanation

What is a LibGuide?

A LibGuide provides quick and meaningful access to resources and information specifically selected for your class.

Chat Hours

Chat live with a HACC librarian during Spring & Fall semesters:

  • Monday - Thursday: 8:00 AM - 10:00 PM
  • Friday: 8:00 AM - 8:00 PM
  • Saturday: 9:00 AM - 6:00 PM
  • Sunday: noon - 10:00 PM

Please note while HACC librarians are available during the above hours, you can chat live 24/7 with a non-HACC librarian.

Diane Wollaston

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Diane Wollaston
she/her/hers
Contact:
Working Remotely
Zoom Meeting ID: 2926600239
dwollast@hacc.edu
717-234-4250

Evaluating Sources

Evaluating Books

In evaluating a book for use in a research project, ask the following questions:

WHO

  • Who gathered the included information, wrote the book’s contents, and subsequently edited &  published it?
  • Is the book’s author (or authors) a knowledgeable expert in the field?  Can you trust him/her?      
  • Who are the intended readers of the book? Are they the general public, professional academics/researchers, or high school/college students?

WHEN

  • When was the information contained in the book gathered, compiled, and presented?  
  • Has the book been updated in a revised edition since first being published?
  • Is the information in the book consistent with and reflective of recent events in the field?

HOW

  • How does the book accomplish its mission of providing clear, accurate information on the topic?
  • Are its sources available in a bibliography or resource list?
  • Does the information presented contradict other reliable sources?
  • Does the author (or authors) explain the research methods used to gather data?

WHAT

  • What does this book add to your knowledge of the topic?
  • Does it provide an overview or historical background?
  • Does it cover the details of your topic in the proper depth?
  • Does it focus on details that do not appear to be useful to your topic?

WHY

  • Why was this book written?
  • Does it advance a social, political, or professional agenda?
  • Does it attempt to project a personal point of view?
  • Does it attempt to change the reader’s point of view?
  • Does the author (or authors) employ emotionally charged language?
  • Does the book present information documented by valid evidence and allow the reader to draw his/her own conclusions?
  • Is the presentation of included material objective or is it biased in some way?        

Rhetorical Triangle

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Rhetorical Triangle

You can use the rhetorical triangle to evaluate information. 

decorative

Author

Look at the competence and expertise of the author in the area they are writing. 

decorative

Audience

Consider who the information is written for and whether you fit into that group.

decorative

Purpose

Use the context of where the information is found as well as the context within which it was written.

Evaluating Sources for Credibility (NC State)

Webpage Evaluation

Evaluating Web Information

Why is it important to evaluate information you find when you use Google (or another search engine)?

  • Anyone can post information to the Web
  • There is no guarantee that the information you find has been checked for accuracy
  • Because there is so much information available online, you need strategies for deciding which is the best information to use

Getting Information off the internet is like taking a drink from a fire hydrant poster

"information overload" by SparkCBC on flickr at https://flic.kr/p/61VWme (CC BY-SA 2.0)

What is the CRAAP Test?

  • The CRAAP Test was originally developed at California State University, Chico.

  • CRAAP is an acronym in which each letter represents one of five criteria which can be considered when deciding if information is credible to use for research and academic writing. It is particularly important to critically evaluate Web sources before using them.

    • Currency

    • Relevance

    • Authority

    • Accuracy

    • Purpose

  • The graphic below (from Humber Libraries at Humber College) lists the criteria. (http://libguides.humber.ca/content.php?pid=59653&sid=451734)

CRAAP Test Criteria

  • The following rubric is useful for deciding on the value and quality of a website for research. It was developed by the Ron E. Lewis Library at Lamar State College--Orange. 

http://library.lsco.edu/help/web-page-rubric.pdf

Types of "Fake News" -- See the HACC Library "Fake News" LibGuide for More Information and Tips 
 

Imposter News Sites

These websites are designed to look like legitimate sites and incorporate some facts into their stories, but the articles are false. They are an attempt to convince readers to pass the news on as if it were true. These fake news sites get revenue from the ads you see on the page.

WITscience

Real News Right Now

Satire

Satire websites not really "fake news". These sites that may be topical, but the stories are not real. They are meant to be humorous, not to deceive the reader.

The Onion

McSweeny's

Clickbait and Hoaxes

These websites also have bits of true stories but insinuate and make up other details to create an emotional response, typically anger or fear. Most of these are conspiratorial in nature, are very unreliable, and frequently shared on social media.  The stories often feature outrageous headlines in all capital letters.

The Daily Sheeple

REALfarmacy

Web Extension Meaning/What it Stands For
.com commercial
.gov government
.edu educational institution
.org organization
.mil military
Watch out for .com.co often used by fake news sites

 

Types of URLs and Their Uses

URL Type of Information
.com (commercial) Commercial sites, ads, business info, shopping, news
.edu (education) School info, links to librarian and departments
.gov (government) Statistics, public info, facts, agency databases.
.org (organization) Non-profit information, interest group agendas, may try to influence public opinion
.net (network) Internet service provider, often sponsors personal sites

URL= Uniform Resource Locator

More than 100 URLs exist

List of URLs

CRAAP Test

Unlike books and scholarly databases, anyone can create a website or edit a Wikipedia entry. Websites can provide quick and up-to-the-minute information, however, not all of the information is true or trustworthy.  Applying a simple test is important to evaluate if the sites you are using qualify as good research. Analyze websites for currency, relevance, authority, accuracy, and purpose.
CRAAP test

Currency or the timeliness of the web page

  • When was the information posted?
  • When was it last updated?
  • Are there more recent websites or articles?
  • Are links working and up-to-date? Broken links mean a site is not being taken care of and is not a good site.

When choosing between similar websites, try to pick the more recent one to use.

Modified version of CRAAP Test created by Meriam Library at California State University, Chico.

Relevance or uniqueness of the content and its importance for your needs

  • Does this site talk about your topic?
  • Can you find the same or better information somewhere else?
  • Who is this website for? Make sure it is the same as the kind of people you are writing for.

Modified version of CRAAP Test created by Meriam Library at California State University, Chico.

Authority or the source of the web page

  • Can you tell who is the author or creator?
  • Can you tell the author is an expert?
    • Do they list where they work or talk about their connection to the topic?
    • Is there contact information for the author?
  • What is the type of website? (.edu and .gov are the best for research)

Never ever use a source if you can't tell who the author is or why you should trust wha they say.

Modified version of CRAAP Test created by Meriam Library at California State University, Chico.

Accuracy or reliability or truthfulness

  • Where does the information come from? Does the author cite their sources?
  • Do your other sources support what this site is saying?
  • Are there spelling or grammar errors?

Modified version of CRAAP Test created by Meriam Library at California State University, Chico.

Purpose or the reason the website exists

  • To entertain you?
  • To inform or explain something you?
  • To persuade you?
  • To sell you something? Are there a lot of ads?

The best sources try to inform or explain.

Modified version of CRAAP Test created by Meriam Library at California State University, Chico.

Databases

Scholarly vs. Popular

Check Your Source

 

Table outlining differences between scholarly journals, popular magazines, and trade publications.

Check Your Sources

Scholarly Journal

  • In-Depth- primary account of original findings written by the researcher.  Very specific information.
  • Purpose- to advance knowledge and educate.
  • Author- Usually a scholar or specialist with subject expertise and credentials provided.
  • Written for scholars, researchers, and students.
  • Uses specialized terminology or jargon of the field.
  • Format- includes the article abstract, goals and objectives, methodology, results (evidence), discussion, conclusion, and bibliography.
  • Articles are evaluated by peer-reviewers or referees who are experts in the field.
  • References are provided.
  • Examples- Journal of Abnormal Psychology, History of Education Quarterly

Popular Magazine

  • Secondary discussion of someone else's research, may include personal narrative or opinion, general information.
  • Purpose- to entertain or inform
  • Author- frequently a journalist paid to write articles, may or may not have subject expertise.
  • Written for the general public and interested non-specialists.
  • Easily understandable to most readers.
  • Format- may include non-standard formatting.  May not present supporting evidence or a conclusion.
  • Articles are evaluated by editorial staff not experts in the field.
  • References or source materials rarely provided.
  • Examples- Sports Illustrated, National Geographic, Time, Newsweek, Ladies Home Journal.

Trade Journal or Magazine

  • Current news, trends or products in a specific field or industry.
  • Purpose- provide practical industry information
  • Author- usually industry professional, sometimes a journalist with subject expertise.
  • Written for industry professionals and interested non-specialists.
  • Uses specialized terminology or jargon of the field, but not as technical as a scholarly journal.
  • Format- organized like a journal or newsletter.  Presents evidence from personal experience or common knowledge.
  • Articles are evaluated by editorial staff, not peer reviewed.
  • References may be provided in brief bibliography, not required.
  • Examples- PC World, Restaurant Business, Psychology Today, School Band and Orchestra

Keyword Searching

Keyword search infographic

Keyword searches find articles that contain the word(s) typed in the search box. Brainstorm synonyms and alternative words for your topic, thesis, or essential question. Using words such as AND, OR, and NOT with your keywords help narrow or expand the search results.

Database Limiters

Database limiters reduce the number of search results. I have highlighted only a few of the database limiters. Please experiment with the other limiters offered for database searches.

This type of search will locate complete articles, not just abstracts describing the contents of the articles.

Complete articles can be located without limiting to full-text. Click the "Find It" link next to an article in the search results and follow the instructions to request the full article.

Examples of source types include scholarly/peer reviewed articles, magazines, and newspapers. Other source types are also available as limiters

Depending on your topic, you may want to limit the search results date to recent publication years.

Background Resources

Credo Reference

Credo Reference

Articles from encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference sources from all subject areas. Includes images, audio pronunciation files, maps, and data tables.

Gale Ebooks

Gale Ebooks

Collection of encyclopedias, dictionaries and handbooks covering a variety of subject areas.

Oxford Reference Online

Oxford Reference Online

Articles from encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference sources from all subject areas. Includes quotations, maps, and illustrations.

General Article Databases

Academic Search Complete

Academic Search Complete

Articles from scholarly journals, magazines and newspapers covering every area of academic study and news.

ProQuest Central

ProQuest Central

Searches across all ProQuest databases. Articles from scholarly journals, magazines, and newspapers covering every subject area and news topic.

Controversial Issues Databases

Opposing Viewpoints

Opposing Viewpoints

Topic overviews, contrasting viewpoints, articles, primary source documents, statistics, videos, and recommended websites.

CQ Researcher

CQ Researcher

Analytical reports on controversial issues from 1991 to the present. Includes background, chronology, tables and maps, and pro/con statements.

Basic Database Searching (HACC Video)

Advanced Database Searching (HACC Video)

Books

HACC Library: Books and Media Catalog Search (Opens in New Page)

The HACC Library: Books and Media catalog is a searchable database of books, periodical titles, and audio-visual material available at Harrisburg Area Community College.

 

eBooks

Video Databases

MLA Citations (MLA 9)

MLA Handbook (9th Edition)

MLA Style Center Resources (includes fillable template)

This fillable template will guide you through identifying the types of information you need to gather about a source in order to create the citation within the Works Cited page. When you are asked for a "Container" you are being asked for the larger source that your article, webpage, or chapter is contained within. For example, a chapter is contained within a book: 

MLA Video Tutorials

Citation Examples

Citation Examples (MLA 9)

The following includes examples for a variety of common types of resources a student uses in their work. 

Books

Garcia, Gabriela. Of Women and Salt. Flatiron Books, 2021.
In-Text Citations

According to Garcia, "Text of quotation" (121). 

"Text of quotation" (Garcia 121).

White, Ismail K., and Chryl N. Laird. Steadfast Democrats: How Social Forces Shape Black Political Behavior. Princeton UP, 2020.

In-Text Citations

According to White and Laird, "Text of quotation" (117).

"Text of quotation" (White and Laird 117).

Hurley-Hanson, Amy E., et al.  Autism in the Workplace: Creating Positive Employment and Career Outcomes for Generation A. Palgrave Macmillan, 2020.

In-Text Citations

According to Hurley-Hanson et al., "Text of quotation" (59).

"Text of quotation" (Hurley-Hanson, et al. 59).

Rendon, Laura I., and Vijay Kanagala, editors. The Latino Student’s Guide to STEM Careers. Greenwood, 2017.
In-Text Citations:

According to Rendon and Kanagala, "Text of quotation" (117).

"Text of quotation" (Rendon and Kanagala 117).

Blue Cloud, Peter. “Rattle.” When the Light of the World Was Subdued, Our Songs Came Through: A Norton Anthology of Native Nations Poetry, edited by Joy Harjo, W. W. Norton, 2020, p. 33.

In-Text Citations:

According to Blue Cloud, "Text of quotation" (39).

"Text of quotation" (Blue Cloud 33).

Johnson, Earl. Finding Comfort During Hard Times : A Guide to Healing After Disaster, Violence, and Other Community Trauma. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2020. EBSCOhost, https://ezproxy.hacc.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=2398724&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

In-Text Citations:

According to Johnson, "Text of quotation" (202).

"Text of quotation" (Johnson 202).

McBride, James. Deacon King Kong. E-book ed., Riverhead Books, 2020. Overdrive.

In-Text Citations:

McBride states, "Text of quotation" (89).

"Text of quotation" (McBride 89).

Suzuki, Yoko. "Enka Music." Music around the World: A Global Encyclopedia, edited by Andrew R. Martin and Matthew Mihalka, vol. 1, ABC-CLIO, 2020, pp. 252-254. Gale eBooks, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX7327400103/GVRL?u=harr60939&sid=bookmark-GVRL&xid=0d089d86.

In-Text Citations:

According to Suzuki, "Text of quotation" (253).

"Text of quotation" (Suzuki 253).

Database Articles

Medeiros, Michelle. “Introduction: Why Transatlantic Dialogues?” The Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association, vol. 52, no. 1, spring 2019, pp. 5–10. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/45281943. Accessed 30 July 2021.
In-Text Citations
Medeiros states, “Text of quotation” (6). “Text of Quotation” (Medeiros 6).

Yakubu, Okhumode H. "Delivering Environmental Justice through Environmental Impact Assessment in the United States: The Challenge of Public Participation." Challenges, vol. 9, no. 1, 2018. ProQuest, http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.hacc.edu/10.3390/challe9010009.

In-Text Citations
Yakubu states, “Text of quotation.” “Text of Quotation” (Yakubu).

Yu, Qinggang, et al. "Racial Residential Segregation and Economic Disparity Jointly Exacerbate COVID‐19 Fatality in Large American Cities." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1494, no. 1, 2021, pp. 18-30. ProQuest, http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.hacc.edu/scholarly-journals/racial-residential-segregation-economic-disparity/docview/2539985510/se-2?accountid=11302.

In-Text Citations
Yu et al. state, “Text of quotation” (25). “Text of Quotation” (Yu et al. 25).
Warren, John E. "One Year After George Floyd: America and the Police." New Pittsburgh Courier, June 2021. ProQuest, http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.hacc.edu/newspapers/one-year-after-george-floyd-america-police/docview/2542743994/se-2?accountid=11302.
In-Text Citations:
Warren states, “Text of quotation.” “Text of Quotation” (Warren).

"Out of the Shadows: Mental Health." The Economist, vol. 415, no. 8935, Apr 25, 2015, pp. 56-57. ProQuest, http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.hacc.edu/magazines/out-shadows-mental-health/docview/1675910741/se-2?accountid=11302.

In-Text Citations:
“Out of the Shadows” explains “Text of quotation.” “Text of Quotation” (“Out of the Shadows”).

Websites

“Drinking Water.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 28 Oct. 2020, www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/public/water_quality.html.
In-Text Citations
In the article "Drinking Water"... Or: “Text of quote” (“Drinking Water”).

“Are Tanning Pills and Other Tanning Products Safe?” American Cancer Society, 23 July 2019, www.cancer.org/healthy/be-safe-in-sun/tanning-pills-and-products.html.

In-Text Citations
(“Tanning Pills”).

Imbler, Sabrina. “What If You Could Become Invisible to Mosquitos?” The New York Times, 17 Aug. 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/08/17/science/crispr-mosquito-vision.html.

In-Text Citations
(Imbler).
Morin, Brandi. “These Indigenous Children Died Far Away More Than a Century Ago. Here’s How They Finally Got Home.” National Geographic, photographs by Daniella Zalcman, National Geographic Society, 6 Aug. 2021, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/
these-indigenous-children-died-far-away-more-than-a-century-ago-heres-how-they-finally-got-home.
In-Text Citations:
(Morin).

Other Web Content

Angerer, Drew. Photograph of Activist at Temporary Protected Status Rally. "What to Expect When You're Expecting Temporary Protected Status," by Cirien Saadeh, 4 Aug. 2021. Colorlines, https://www.colorlines.com/articles/what-expect-when-youre-expecting-temporary-protected-status.
In-Text Citations
In a photograph taken by Drew Angerer, ... (Angerer).

Bettmann. Daniel Hale Williams. Biography, www.biography.com/news/daniel-hale-williams-first-open-heart-surgery-story.

Within the Text

photo of Daniel Hale Williams

Fig. 1. Daniel Hale Williams.

Ross, Loretta J. "Don't Call People Out, Call Them In." YouTube, uploaded by TED, 4 Aug. 2021, https://youtu.be/xw_720iQDss.

In-Text Citations
According to Loretta Ross, "text of quotation" (3:14). "Text of quotation" (Ross 3:14).
National Park Service. "At National Parks, You Don't Pet Bison." Instagram, 4 Aug. 2021, https://www.instagram.com/p/CSLJo_4D_oe/.
In-Text Citations:
According to the National Park Service, "text of quotation." "Text of quotation" (National Park Service).

"Ending Child Marriage in Jordan: A Bride with a Doll." Equality Now, 21 June 2021, https://www.equalitynow.org/a_bride_with_a_doll.

In-Text Citations:
According to blog post "Ending Child Marriage in Jordan," female children "text of quotation." "Text of quotation" ("Ending Child Marriage in Jordan").

Luse, Brittany and Eric Eddings, hosts. "Trans Lives, Front and Center." The Nod, Gimlet Media, 11 Aug. 2020. https://gimletmedia.com/shows/the-nod/6nhb9dw/trans-lives-front-and-center.

In-Text Citations:
According to Luse and Eddings, "text of quotation" (4:39). "Text of quotation" (Luse and Eddings 4:39).

Interviews

Chang, Joe. Interview. Conducted by Eva Smith, 2 Aug. 2021.
In-Text Citations
According to Chang, "Text of quotation." "Text of quotation" (Chang).

Chang, Joe. Telephone interview with the author. 2 Aug. 2021.

In-Text Citations
According to Chang, "Text of quotation." "Text of quotation" (Chang).
Chang, Joe. Personal communication with the author. 2 Aug. 2021.
In-Text Citations:
According to Chang, "Text of quotation." "Text of quotation" (Chang).

Chang, Joe. Email message to the author. 2 Aug. 2021.

In-Text Citations:
According to Chang, "Text of quotation." "Text of quotation" (Chang).

Chang, Joe. Text message to the author. 2 Aug. 2021.

In-Text Citations:
According to Chang, "Text of quotation." "Text of quotation" (Chang).

In-Text Citations

MLA In-Text Citation Flowchart

MLA In-text citation flowchart - refer to outline after image 

Outline Summary - MLA In-Text Citations Flowchart
  1. Q: Are you paraphrasing or quoting from a source?
    1. If No, You do not need to provide a citation in parentheses.
    2. If Yes, Q: Does your source have page numbers?
      1. If No, You will not include any numbers in your in-text citation. Move to Q: “Are you able to Identify an author?”
      2. If Yes, Include the page number of the information you used in your in-text citation. Move to Q: “Are you able to Identify an author?”
  2. Q: Are you able to identify an author? 
    1. If No, Use a shortened version of the title, in quotations marks
    2. If Yes, Q: Are the authors identified by first and last names
      1. If No, Use the group, organization or department name
      2. If Yes, Q: “How many authors are there?”
        1. One: Use the last name only
        2. Two: Use both last names with the word and in between
        3. Three or more: Use the first author’s last name followed by et al.
  3. Q: Did you put any author names or page numbers in the sentence where you used the information?
    1. If Yes, You do not need to duplicate what you already wrote within parentheses.
    2. If No, Place the information in parentheses at the end of the sentence before the period.
Examples of two authors with page information: 
Smith and Jones noted 5% increase in the use of infographics in the last two years (45).
There was a 5% increase in the use of infographics in the last two years (Smith and Jones 45).

In-Text Citations

When writing your paper, you need to provide an in-text citation that tells the reader which of your sources the information came from. This citations shows up within the paper as either part of the introductory phrase of the sentence or in parentheses at the end of the sentence. 

"An in-text citation begins with the shortest piece of information that directs your reader to the entry in the Works Cited list. Thus it begins with whatever comes first in the entry"  (usually the author). A second 'location" component will also often be included, if available. Examples of second components are page numbers; line numbers; and time stamps (Modern Language Association 227-228).

In-text citations must be included for both direct quotations and paraphrases. 

Examples

According to Smith, the number of students relying on citation software has increased (234). 

The number of students relying on citation software has increased (Smith 234). 

This in-text citation points the reader to the Works Cited page to find the complete citation. 

 

3 or More Authors

*For in-text citations use et al. Example: (Smith et al.)

*For a Works Cited page use et al. Example:

Smith, David, et al. "The Importance of a Works Citation Page." Citation Machine, vol. 24, no. 2, Spring 2015, pp. 107-108. Academic Search Complete, ezproxy.hacc.edu/login?quil=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.ebscohose.com %2flogin.aspx%fdirect%3dtrue%26db%3da9h%26AN%3d2491181%26site%dehost-live%26scope%dsite.

How to Set up an MLA 9 Paper

How to Set up Your Paper

  1. Open Microsoft Word 2016
    1. Click on the Start button (lower left-hand corner).
    2. Select All Apps, and then Word 2016.
    3. A screen asking what type of document you want to use will appear. Choose “blank document”.
  2. SET THE FONT
    1. From the Home tab, in the Font group, change the style to Times New Roman
    2. Change the size to 12, using the drop-down arrows.
  3. SET THE MARGINS
    1. From the Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click Margins.
    2. For a paper in MLAFormat, click Normal. This will create 1” margins on all sides.
  4. DOUBLE SPACING - Change line spacing
    1. Click on the Home tab. In the Paragraph group, click Line Spacing.
    2. Click 2.0, to select double-spacing. NOTE: To change the spacing of a paragraph or portion of the text, highlight the section that needs to be changed, open the paragraph group, and re-select the appropriate spacing.
  5. SETTING UP THE HEADER [Inserting your Last Name and Page Number]
    1. On the first page of the document, double click the header or footer area (on the top of the page).
    2. Under Header & Footer Tools, on the Insert tab click Page Number.
    3. Select, ‘Top of Page’ and “plain number 3” (right-hand side).
    4. When cursor is blinking, type your last name before the page number.
    5. Select the red Close Header box in the upper right.
    6. NOTE: To create a custom header or footer click the Different First Page check box and go to the next step.
  6. ENTER YOUR HEADING
    1. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click Left Align
    2. Type in your heading information:
    • Your Name
    • Instructor’s Name
    • Course Title
    • Due Date (day month year)
  7. CENTER YOUR TITLE
    1. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click Center Align
    2. Type your title. Press the Enter Key
    3. Select Left Align and continue with your document.
  8. WORKS CITED AND HANGING INDENTS
    1. At the end of your paper you must create a list of resources that you cited in your paper. This is called the Works Cited list on its own separate page. This list must be in alphabetical order and include hanging indents.
    2. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click Center
    3. On the first line of the reference page, center the words “Works Cited” (no bold, formatting,
    4. italics, underlining, or quotation marks).
    5. Beginning with the next line, type your citations. If a citation is longer than one line just keep typing and allow it to automatically flow onto the next line.
    6. At the end of your citation use the enter key to go to the next line to start the next citation.
    7. Once you are finished with all your citations highlight all of them.
    8. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the small arrow in the bottom right corner.
    9. In the indentation section click the drop down box labeled “special” and select “hanging” then click okay.
    10. Make sure the citations are still highlighted. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the sort button and click okay. This will alphabetize your entries.
  1. LOG-IN TO YOUR GOOGLE ACCOUNT
    1. In the top right, click the menu button.
    2.  Select Google Drive from the list
    3. On the left-hand side, click New:
    4. Select Google Docs from the list
    5. Click Untitled Document in the top left to rename your document
  2. SET THE FONT: In the ribbon along the top of the page, change the style to Times New Roman and the size to 12, using the drop-down arrows.
  3. SET THE MARGINS
    1. Click File
    2. Select Page Set-Up
    3. Make sure the margins are all set to 1.
  4. DOUBLE SPACING - Change line spacing
    1. Find the line spacing icon in the ribbon.
    2. From the drop down menu, select double.
  5. SETTING UP A HEADER
    1. Select Insert along the top of the page.
    2. From the drop-down menu, select Page Number.
    3. Click on the first option with page numbers in the top right-hand corner.
    4. Your page number should appear on the top right-hand side of the page. If it is not on the right-hand side, you will need to change it. Click on Format, select Align, and change it to Right.
    5. With your cursor in front of the page number, click the enter button. This will drop your header down to the next line.
    6. In front of the page number, type your last name(s) and then click the space bar.
  6. HEADING
    1. On the first page of your paper, include a heading in the top left-hand corner.
    2. Your heading will include the following:
      Your Name(s)
      Instructor’s Name
      Course Title
      Due Date (day month year)
  7. WORKS CITED AND HANGING INDENTS
    1. At the end of your paper you must create a list of resources that you cited in your paper.
      This is called the Works Cited list on its own separate page. This list must be in
      alphabetical order and include hanging indents.
    2. To start a new page, look for Insert along the top of the page. From the drop-down menu,
      select Page Break from that list. This will put your cursor on a new page and you will be
      ready to begin your Works Cited page.
      1. Click on Format, select Align, and change the alignment to Center. At the top of the page,
        center the words: Works Cited (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation
        marks).
      2. Beginning with the next line, type your citations. If a citation is longer than one line just
        keep typing and allow it to automatically flow onto the next line.
      3. At the end of your citation use the enter key to go to the next line to start the next citation.
      4. Once you are finished with all citations, highlight all of them.
      5. At the top of your document, there is a format option. Open the Format menu.
      6. In the format menu, select the option for align & indent. From this option, open the menu for indentation options.
      7. In the indentation options menu, make sure that left and right indents are set to 0. Then under special options, select Hanging to automatically format your highlighted citations with a hanging indent.
  8. SAVING: Google automatically saves your information. You will see the last time the information was saved along the top of the document.
  9. DOWNLOADING: You can download your document as a Word file. Click File, Download As, and then select your preferred Document type.
  10. PRINTING: Use the print icon within Google to print your document. If you try to use another print option in your web browser, it probably will not print correctly. Most likely, clicking the print option in Google will open a prompt asking if you want to open your document as an Adobe PDF. Select open and then you can print your document from within Adobe.