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In A. B. Powers, Dictionary of Nursing Theory and Research (4th ed.).
"The EBP process involves four steps.
Converting clinical problems into answerable questions involves formulating either general (background) or care-specific (foreground) questions, such as the following: Background question – What is the effect of tobacco smoking on the circulatory system? Foreground question – Does clinician counseling result in a higher rate of smoking cessation among smokers in primary care practice than written materials?
Locating best evidence with maximum efficiency involves information management skills including, especially, the use of electronic databases.
Critically appraising evidence for its validity, importance, and usefulness involves application of specific criteria to determine the methodological rigor, significance, and generalizability of research findings.
Integrating this appraisal with clinical expertise and patient values involves considering how research-based best evidence corresponds to clinicians' prior experiences and unique knowledge of both the patient and the situation."