The information provided in this guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed. 1st printing) and the APA website https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations
This guide explains how to use in-text APA style citations and references, why we use them, and how you can learn to use them for your courses. Not citing the source of information is plagiarism and falls under academic dishonesty penalties for your course and the college.
Note: Your instructor might have specific requirements that vary from this, so always pay attention to your instructor’s directions.
In-text citations are often in parenthesis or integrated into a sentence. They are used when you use a resource in your writing, either via direct quote or paraphrase. They include authors’ names, the year of publications, and when directly quoting text, and a page number. Look at the following examples:
Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public perception of expert consensus on an issue (Koehler, 2016).
Koehler (2016) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage.
Effective teams can be difficult to describe because “high performance along one domain does not translate to high performance along another” (Ervin et al., 2018, p. 470).
Webster and Stratton (2016) described a case example of “a 4-year old girl who showed an insecure attachment to her mother, in working with the family dyad, the therapist focused on increasing the mother empathy for her child” (pp.152-153).
Note: the differences in the use of “and” versus “&,” where the parenthesis is located, and how the citations is integrated into each sentence.
The number of authors included in the citation varies based upon the numbers of authors in the resource.
When there is a single author, use that author for every citation (Jones, 2019).
When there are 2 authors, use both authors for every citation (Jones & Smith, 2019).
When there are 3 or more authors, use the first author followed by et al. for all citations (Baker et al., 2020).
References refer to the list at the end of an article, assignment, book, or book chapter that indicates the complete information for the resources that were cited in the writing of that item. This information includes the author(s), the date, the source, etc. Normally references are on a separate page from the main portion of the written material.