The basic APA format for a reference includes 4 elements: author, date, title, and source. The reference might also include a DOI or URL. In this tabbed box, there are specific examples for some of the most used types of references. See your instructor or the 7th Edition of the APA Manual for specific information on other types of resources that are not included in this reference guide.
Follow these guidelines for including DOIs or URLs:
Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K. H. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. Henry Holt and Co. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/10039-000
For a selection from an edited book that has different authors for different chapters.
Valetk, H. A. (2006). A federal law criminalizing cyberstalking is needed. In J. Carroll (Ed.), Privacy (pp. 214-219). Greenhaven.
If the volume or issue is missing, omit them from the reference as shown below.
Carmichael, M. (2007, June 4). The changing science of pain. Newsweek, 40- 47. https://www.newsweek.com/new-research-pain-treatment-101725
If the article is in print, omit the URL.
Yervasi, C. (2008). Ouaga Saga, magical realism, and postcolonial politics. Research in African Literatures, 39(4), 40-57. http://doi.org/d79j4n
• Italicize both the title and volume number of the journal, but not the issue number.
United Nations. (2020, March 9). Amid COVID-19 constraints, UN women’s commission meets to push gender equality forward. https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/03/1058971
The interviewee explained his ideas (P.T. Samuels, personal communication, October 15, 2008). H. Matthews explained his ideas on the topic (personal communication, July 8, 2009).
Use the following web sites for more APA information and examples.